Prevention of FASD through Preconception Conversations

In our work on FASD prevention, reaching women on the topic of the effects of alcohol use before they are pregnant is a much needed component. Yet when offering a continuum of perinatal and reproductive care, our health care systems usually do not make preconception health a priority. It is indeed a challenge to promote critical thinking about alcohol use in pregnancy when women a) are not yet actively planning a pregnancy,  b) are unaware, misinformed or unconcerned about of the effects of alcohol, or c) are acutely aware of the stigma associated with drinking alcohol in pregnancy and resistant to hearing the message.

In a recent article for the UK journal, International Journal of Birth and Parent Education, we described what is known about empowering and effective preconception health interventions, to catalyse and support the work of health care practitioners working with women of childbearing years.

We entitled the article “Beyond Screening” as it is important to enter discussions about alcohol use in pregnancy as conversations that reduce stigma and support critical thinking about alcohol use before, during, and after pregnancy.

In a section of the article entitled “Issues and Actions Needed” we offered 8 key considerations when offering preconception education and support on substance use issues:

  1. moving beyond screening – Asking about what women know about effects of substance use in pregnancy and what their plans are, may be more engaging and helpful to open conversations, rather than starting with formal screening questions
  2. reducing stigma – By naming how stigma and fears of judgement may be a barrier, health care providers can build an open relationship with women that facilitates safety and empowerment
  3. involving women – In the context of substance use by women overall, and in pregnancy, where judgement, bias, discrimination, misinformation and stigma are rampant, it is particularly important to involve women respectfully and collaboratively in defining what works for them
  4. involving men/partners– Involving partners in preconception and prenatal care, messaging, and support can be an important strategy for reducing the weight of pregnancy planning for women, and for improving overall health.
  5. using technology – Web-based support on substance use issues is increasingly available to extend the reach and engagement by the public in early and accessible assistance. Sharing where such information is available, supports the seeking of assistance in an anonymous and self determining way
  6. building on practitioner wisdom and relationships – Motivational Interviewing and other evidence informed practices are already being used by many practitioners for guiding conversations on substance use that are trauma informed, harm reduction oriented and strengths based. These approaches are highly relevant in conversations about substance use before, during and following pregnancy, and can be best ‘heard’ in conversations with trusted providers. 
  7. multi-tasking – The benefits and reach of dual focus preconception interventions (that involve discussion of substance use with other health issues) are important. Integrating discussion of how alcohol may be a factor linked with nutrition, mental wellness, prevention of intimate partner violence and/or housing can be helpful, and respectful of women’s interests.
  8. embedding preconception conversations in multiple systems of care – It is vital that preconception care be well integrated in health, social, and community care, with many types of practitioners all playing a role.

We are appreciative of being asked to revisit what we know about preconception interventions, and see it as important for everyone to ask of their communities and countries:

  • Who is doing preconception interventions on alcohol and other substance use?
  • In what additional contexts can preconception health and substance use issues be raised?
  • How can we promote gender and other forms of equity as we are doing preconception interventions on substance use?
  • What does each practitioner need to support action on this level of FASD prevention?

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